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Megabit per second baseband Ethernet specification using
two paris of twisted-pair cabling (Category 3, 4 or 5):
one pair for transmitting data and the other for receiving
data. 10BaseT has a distance limit of approximately 100
meters per segment.
Mebabit per second baseband Fast Ehternet specification
using UTP wiring. Like the 10BaseT technology on which it
is based, 100BaseT sends link pulses over the network segment
when no traffic is present. However, these link pulses contain
more information than those used in 10BaseT.
A record is part of the zone file. It is used to point Internet
traffic to an IP address. For example, you can use an "A
record" to designate abc.yourdomain.com to send traffic
to your web site at IP address 18.104.22.168. You can also
designate xyz.yourdomain.com to go to a separate IP address.
Access® published by Microsoft is an easy to use and highly
integrated database creation and maintenance software. Capable
of online databases, the software is supported with the
NT® hosting platform.
Digital Subscriber Line) -- A method for moving data over
regular phone lines. An ADSL circuit is much faster than
a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the
subscriber's premises are the same (copper) wires used for
regular phone service. An ADSL circuit must be configured
to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line.
A commonly discussed configuration of ADSL would allow
a subscriber to receive data (download) at speeds of up
to 1.544 Megabits per second, and to send (upload) data
at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. Thus the 'Asymmetric'
part of the acronym.
Another commonly discussed configuration would be symmetrical:
384 kilobits per second in both directions. In theory
ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits per second
and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second.
ADSL is often discussed as an alternative to ISDN,
allowing higher speeds in cases where the connection is
always to the same place.
File Transfer Protocol allows the public to log into an
FTP server with a common login (usually "ftp" or "anonymous"
and any password (usually the person's e-mail address is
used as the password). Anonymous FTP is benefitial for the
distribution of large files to the public, avoiding the
need to assign large numbers of login and password combinations
for FTP access.
small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML
page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications
in that they are not allowed to access certain resources
on the local computer, such as files and serial devices
(modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating
with most other computers across a network. The current
rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection
to the computer from which the applet was sent.
tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous
FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a
substring of it.
Research Projects Agency Network) -- The precursor to the
Internet. Landmark packet-switching network established
in 1969 by the US Department of Defense as an experiment
in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war.
- Active Server Pages (ASP). ASP files, which provide Web
developers with an easier, faster, and more powerful way
to build Web applications, are regular HTML pages with embedded
scripts. These scripts can be written in any language and
processed by the server when the file's URL is requested.
-- Asynchronous Transfer Mode. International sandard for
cell relay in which multiple service types (such as voice,
video, or data) are conveyed in fixed-length (53-byte) cells.
Fixed-length cells allow cell processing to occur in hardware,
thereby reducing transit delays. ATM is designed to take
advantage of high-speed transmission media such as E3, SONET,
Standard Code for Information Interchange) -- This is the
de facto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by
computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin
letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard
ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit
binary number: 0000000 through 1111111, plus parity.
high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major
pathway within a network. The term is relative, as a backbone
in a small network will likely be much smaller than
many non-backbone lines in a large network.
difference between the highest and lowest frequencies available
for network signals. The term is also used to describe the
rated throughput capacity of a given network medium or protocol.
In short, bandwidth is a loose term used to describe the
throughput capacity (measured in Kilobits or Megabits per
second) of a specific circuit.
of signaling speed equal to the number of discrete signal
elements transmited per second. Baud is synonymous with
bits per second (bps). In common usage the baud rate of
a modem is how many bits it can send or receive
per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per
second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example
a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but
it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300 = 1200 bits per second).
(Bulletin Board System)
computerized meeting and announcement system that allows
people to carry on discussions, upload and download files,
and make announcements without the people being connected
to the computer at the same time. There are many thousands
(millions?) of BBS's around the world, most are very small,
running on a single IBM clone PC with 1 or 2 phone lines.
Some are very large and the line between a BBS and a system
like CompuServe gets crossed at some point, but it is not
HEXadecimal) -- A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII)
into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail
can only handle ASCII.
DigIT) -- A single digit number in base-2, in other words,
either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized
data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.
It's Time NETwork (or Because It's There NETwork)) -- A
network of educational sites separate from the Internet,
but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and
the Internet. Listservs, the most popular form of
e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. BITNET machines
are usually mainframes running the VMS operating system,
and the network is probably the only international network
that is shrinking.
-- A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place
to another. A 28.8 modem can move 28,800 bits per
software that is used to look at various kinds of Internet
resources. Examples include Microsoft's Internet Explorer
and Netscape's Navigator.
The Way) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in
an online forum.
set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there
are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the
measurement is being made. See Also: Bit
issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL
Gateway Interface) -- A set of rules that describe how a
Web Server communicates with another piece
of software on the same machine, and how the other piece
of software (the 'CGI program') talks to the web server.
Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles
input and output according to the CGI standard.
Usually a CGI program is a small program that takes data
from a web server and does something with it, like putting
the content of a form into an e-mail message, or turning
the data into a database query.
CGI "scripts" are just scripts which use CGI. CGI is often
confused with Perl, which is a programming language, while
CGI is an interface to the server from a particular program.
Perl is an application of CGI, as well as MIVA, Python,
PHP3, and other scripting languages.
most common name of a directory on a web server in which
CGI programs are stored. The 'bin' part of 'cgi-bin'
is a shorthand version of 'binary', because once upon a
time, most programs were referred to as 'binaries'. In real
life, most programs found in cgi-bin directories are text
files -- scripts that are executed by binaries located elsewhere
on the server. While most programs using CGI are stored
in this directory, it is not a requirement for using CGI.
software program that is used to contact and obtain data
from a server software program on another computer, often
across a great distance. Each client program is designed
to work with one or more specific kinds of server programs,
and each server requires a specific kind of client. A web
browser and an FTP program are specific kinds of clients.
See Also: Browser,
Operations Centers such as CommuniTech.Net offer the ability
for customers to place their webservers and other network
equipment in thier NOC which are connected via high speed
fiber data lines to the backbone of the Internet. Administration
is done remotely so that a customer far away can configure
and control their network equipment.
Fusion is a scripting language for web designers that want
wish to do advanced development and/or database interfacing.
Cold Fusion supports MS Access, dBASE, FoxPro, and Paradox
the case of many registries, contact information for technical,
billing and administrative purposes are maintained in their
database. It is important to keep your contact records updated
to ensure that billing and renewal can proceed without problems.
most common meaning of 'Cookie' on the Internet refers to
a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a
Web Browser that the Browser software is expected
to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser
makes additional requests from the Server.
Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browser's
settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie,
and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long
Cookies might contain information such as login or registration
information, online 'shopping cart' information, user
When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes
a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored
in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customize
what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular
Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined
amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the
Browser software is closed down, at which time they may
be saved to disk if their 'expire time' has not been reached.
Cookies do not read your hard drive and
send your life story to the CIA, but they can be used
to gather more information about a user than would be
possible without them.
was originally a cultural sub-genre of science fiction taking
place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialized
society. The term grew out of the work of William Gibson
and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into a cultural label
encompassing many different kinds of human, machine, and
punk attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle choices
originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer
the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole
range of information resources available through computer
transfer refers to the amount of information that users
browsing the Internet download from a Web site. Whenever
someone enters your Web site or views additional pages within
your site, information is downloaded to the user's computer.
These downloads are continuously recorded to determine the
amount of data transferred from your Web site every month,
so the size of a file or Web site affects monthly data transfer
limits. A Web site that is graphic rich, contains downloadable
software, audio or video files contributes more quickly
to monthly data transfer allowance than a site that contains
Domain Naming System
DNS is a distributed, replicated that allows nameservers
to map easily remembered domain names to an IP number.
those customers that want the advantages of colocation without
the hassles of purchasing their own server. See colocation.
digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague
cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise
in-the-know in regards to the digital revolution.
unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names
always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part
on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right
is the most general. A given machine may have more than
one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one
machine. For example, the domain names: communitech.net,
ftp.communitech.net, whatever.communitech.net can all refer
to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no
more than one machine.
Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have
the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain
Names in the examples above. It is also possible for a
Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual
machine. This is often done so that a group or business
can have an Internet e-mail address without having to
establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real
Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the
listed Domain Name.
Commerce. Refers to the general exchange of goods and services
via the Internet.
Mail) -- Messages, usually text, sent from one person to
another via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically
to a large number of addresses (Mailing List).
very common method of networking computers in a LAN.
Ethernet will handle about 10,000,000 bits-per-second and
can be used with almost any kind of computer.
Asked Questions) -- FAQs are documents that list and answer
the most common questions on a particular subject. There
are hundreds of FAQs on subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming
and Cryptography. FAQs are usually written by people who
have tired of answering the same question over and over.
Distributed Data Interface) -- A standard for transmitting
data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000
bits-per-second (10 times as fast as Ethernet, about
twice as fast as T-3). See Also: Bandwidth
, Ethernet ,
T-1 , T-3
Internet software tool for locating people on other Internet
sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal
information, but the most common use is to see if a person
has an account at a particular Internet site. Many sites
do not allow incoming Finger requests, but many do.
combination of hardware and software that separates a LAN
into two or more parts for security purposes.
flame meant to carry forth in a passionate manner in the
spirit of honorable debate. Flames most often involved the
use of flowery language and flaming well was an art form.
More recently flame has come to refer to any kind of derogatory
comment no matter how witless or crude.
War When an online discussion degenerates into a series
of personal attacks against the debaters, rather than discussion
of their positions. A heated exchange.
Microsoft® FrontPage® is a site creation and management
software tool. One of the most popular website creation
software packages the software, both FrontPage® 98 and FrontPage
®2000 is widely supported by the hosting community.
Transfer Protocol) -- A very common method of moving files
between two Internet sites. FTP is a special way to login
to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving
and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that
have established publicly accessible repositories of material
that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the
account name anonymous, thus these sites are called anonymous
technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up that
translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example
Prodigy has a gateway that translates between its internal,
proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format. Another,
sloppier meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism
for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL might be
called a gateway to the Internet.
widely successful method of making menus of material available
over the Internet. Gopher is a Client and Server
style program, which requires that the user have a Gopher
Client program. Although Gopher spread rapidly across
the globe in only a couple of years, it has been largely
supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW (World Wide
Web). There are still thousands of Gopher Servers
on the Internet and we can expect they will remain for a
used in reference to the World Wide Web, 'hit' means a single
request from a web browser for a single item from
a web server; thus in order for a web browser to
display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 'hits' would
occur at the server: 1 for the HTML page, and one
for each of the 3 graphics.
'hits' are often used as a very rough measure of load
on a server, e.g. 'Our server has been getting 300,000
hits per month.' Because each 'hit' can represent anything
from a request for a tiny document (or even a request
for a missing document) all the way to a request that
requires some significant extra processing (such as a
complex search request), the actual load on a machine
from 1 hit is almost impossible to define.
Page (or Homepage)
meanings. Originally, the web page that your browser
is set to use when it starts up. The more common meaning
refers to the main web page for a business, organization,
person or simply the main page out of a collection of web
pages, e.g. 'Check out so-and-so's new Home Page.'
Another sloppier use of the term refers to practically
any web page as a 'homepage,' e.g. 'That web site has
65 homepages and none of them are interesting.'
computer on a network that is a repository for services
available to other computers on the network. It is
quite common to have one host machine provide several services,
such as WWW and USENET.
term can be used to refer to the housing of a web site,
email or a domain. See Email hosting and Web Site hosting
for more details.
Markup Language) -- The coding language used to create Hypertext
documents for use on the World Wide Web. HTML looks
a lot like old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround
a block of text with codes that indicate how it should appear,
additionally, in HTML you can specify that a block of text,
or a word, is linked to another file on the Internet. HTML
files are meant to be viewed using a World Wide Web Client
Program, such as Netscape or Mosaic.
Transport Protocol) -- The protocol for moving hypertext
files across the Internet. Requires a HTTP client
program on one end, and an HTTP server program on
the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used
in the World Wide Web (WWW).
any text that contains links to other documents - words
or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader
and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed.
My Humble Opinion) -- A shorthand appended to a comment
written in an online forum, IMHO indicates that the writer
is aware that they are expressing a debatable view, probably
on a subject already under discussion. One of may such shorthands
in common use online, especially in discussion forums.
Server indexes the contents and properties of documents
on an Internet or intranet Web site served by IIS 4.0. Index
Server enables Web clients with any browser to search a
Web site by filling in the fields of an HTML query form.
case I) The vast collection of inter-connected networks
that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from
the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's. The
Internet now (July 1995) connects roughly 60,000 independent
networks into a vast global internet.
case i) Any time you connect 2 or more networks
together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or
(now known as Network Solutions) currently holds an exclusive
contract with the U.S. government to assign domain names
for .COM, .NET and .ORG. The contract is scheduled to expire
September 30, 1998. Network Solutions is the company that
runs the InterNIC registry.
private network inside a company or organization
that uses the same kinds of software that you would find
on the public Internet, but that is only for internal
As the Internet has become more popular many of the tools
used on the Internet are being used in private networks,
for example, many companies have web servers that are
available only to employees.
Note that an Intranet may not actually be an internet
-- it may simply be a network.
Protocol Number) -- Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique
number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g.22.214.171.124
Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP
number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is
not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one
or more Domain Names that are easier for people
Relay Chat) -- Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility.
There are a number of major IRC servers around the
world which are linked to each other. Anyone can create
a channel and anything that anyone types in a given channel
is seen by all others in the channel. Private channels can
(and are) created for multi-person conference calls.
Services Digital Network) -- Basically a way to move more
data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is rapidly
becoming available to much of the USA and in most markets
it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits.
It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second
over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will
be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-per-second.
Service Provider) -- An institution that provides access
to the Internet in some form, usually for money.
is a network-oriented programming language invented by Sun
Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programs
that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the
Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or
other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs
(called "Applets"), Web pages can include
functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy
We can expect to see a huge variety of features added
to the Web using Java, since you can write a Java program
to do almost anything a regular computer program can do,
and then include that Java program in a Web page.
Development Kit) -- A software development package from
Sun Microsystems that implements the basic set of tools
needed to write, test and debug Java applications
thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (210) bytes.
Area Network) -- A computer network limited to the immediate
area, usually the same building or floor of a building.
to a phone line that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7
-days-a-week use from your location to another location.
The highest speed data connections require a leased line.
most common kind of maillist, Listservs originated
on BITNET but they are now common on the Internet.
TLDs require initial registration fees as well as annual
or bi-annual renewal fees. Prices vary from cost-free to
thousands of dollars per domain depending on the TLD chosen.
For example, .COM domains cost which covers the first two
years. Re newal fees for .COM are annually after the first
two years expire.
or a verb. Noun: The account name used to gain access to
a computer system. Not a secret (contrast with Password).
Verb: The act of entering into a computer system, e.g. Login
to the WELL and then go to the GBN conference.
Mailing List) A (usually automated) system that allows
people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their
message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers
to the maillist. In this way, people who have many different
kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together.
million bytes. A thousand kilobytes.
Instrument Digital Interface -- A network and accompanying
protocol developed in the 1970's for tranmitting various
information between musical and other devices including
keyboards, samplers, lights, controllers, etc.
Internet Mail Extensions) -- The standard for attaching
non-text files to standard Internet mail messages. Non-text
files include graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor
documents, sound files, etc.
An email program is said to be MIME Compliant if it can
both send and receive files using the MIME standard.
When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they
are converted (encoded) into text - although the resulting
text is not really readable.
Generally speaking the MIME standard is a way of specifying
both the type of file being sent (e.g. a QuicktimeÅ
video file), and the method that should be used to turn
it back into its original form.
Besides email software, the MIME standard is also universally
used by Web Servers to identify the files they
are sending to Web Clients, in this way new file
formats can be accommodated simply by updating the Browsers'
list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate software for
handling each type.
speaking, 'to mirror' is to maintain an exact copy of something.
Probably the most common use of the term on the Internet
refers to 'mirror sites' which are web sites, or
FTP sites that maintain exact copies of material
originated at another location, usually in order to provide
more widespread access to the resource.
Another common use of the term 'mirror' refers to an arrangement
where information is written to more than one hard disk
simultaneously, so that if one disk fails, the computer
keeps on working without losing anything.
DEModulator) -- A device that you connect to your computer
and to a phone line, that allows the computer to talk to
other computers through the phone system. Basically, modems
do for computers what a telephone does for humans.
database that the TLD registries maintain need to be accurate
in order for name resolution, billing, renewal notices and
public records to be processed correctly. Typically modifications
are required when nameservers need to change or the contacts
change email or postal address or phone number. The procedures
for modifying records will depend on the registry.
Object Oriented) -- One of several kinds of multi-user role-playing
environments, so far only text-based.
first WWW browser that was available for the Macintosh,
Windows, and UNIX all with the same interface. Mosaic really
started the popularity of the Web. The source-code to Mosaic
has been licensed by several companies and there are several
other pieces of software as good or better than Mosaic,
most notably, Netscape.
Dungeon or Dimension) -- A (usually text-based) multi-user
simulation environment. Some are purely for fun and flirting,
others are used for serious software development, or education
purposes and all that lies in between. A significant feature
of most MUDs is that users can create things that stay after
they leave and which other users can interact with in their
absence, thus allowing a world to be built gradually and
Simulated Environment) -- One kind of MUD - usually with
little or no violence.
Record: Mail Exchange
Exchange record is part of the zone file and is used to
designate which mail server machine should process email
for a specific domain.
NT® is Microsoft's® 32-bit operating system developed from
what was originally intended to be OS/2 3.0 before Microsoft
®and IBM ceased joint development of OS/2. Used by web hosting
companies in the network environment to offer customers
support for Microsoft base products such as MS Access®,
MS SQL® 7.0, and FrontPage® 2000.
computer that performs the mapping of easily remembered
domain names to IP addresses. Sometimes referred to as a
etiquette on the Internet. See Also: Internet
from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet,
or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes
civic responsibility and participation. See Also: Internet
WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape
(tm) browser was originally based on the Mosaic program
developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications
Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is widely recognized
as the best and most popular web browser. Netscape corporation
also produces web server software.
Netscape provided major improvements in speed and interface
over other browsers, and has also engendered debate by
creating new elements for the HTML language used
by Web pages -- but the Netscape extensions to HTML are
not universally supported.
The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen, was hired
away from the NCSA by Jim Clark, and they founded a company
called Mosaic Communications and soon changed the name
to Netscape Communications Corporation.
time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they
can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect
2 or more networks together and you have an internet.
name for discussion groups on USENET. See Also: USENET
Information Center) -- Generally, any office that handles
information for a network. The most famous of these on the
Internet is Network Solutions, which is where new domain
names are registered. Another definition: NIC also refers
to Network Interface Card which plugs into a computer and
adapts the network interface to the appropriate standard.
ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA cards are all examples of NICs.
News Transport Protocol) -- The protocol used by client
and server software to carry USENET postings
back and forth over a TCP/IP network. If you
are using any of the more common software such as Netscape,
Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate in newsgroups
then you are benefiting from an NNTP connection.
single computer connected to a network.
to a circuit that transmits 155,000,000 bits per second.
This is the size of the largest Internet backbone providers
method used to move data around on the Internet.
In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine
is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of
where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks
of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the
same lines, and be sorted and directed to different routes
by special machines along the way. This way many people
can use the same lines at the same time.
require the use of name servers or hosts for every domain
registered. Parking is the process by which someone selects
a domain name, and "parks" it by registering the domain
name under someone's name servers. Parking can be done by
anyone, to anyone else who has active name servers. However,
parking a domain name alone will result in no service (webhosting,
e-mail) for that particular domain name.
code used to gain access to a locked system. Good passwords
contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations
such as virtue7. A good password might be: Hot-6
(usually small) piece of software that adds features to
a larger piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins
for the Netscape® browser and web server.
Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins.
The idea behind plug-in's is that a small piece of software
is loaded into memory by the larger program, adding a
new feature, and that users need only install the few
plug-ins that they need, out of a much larger pool of
possibilities. Plug-ins are usually developed by a third
of Presence, also Post Office Protocol) -- Two commonly
used meanings: Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol.
A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where
a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone
lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have
a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a local
phone number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased lines
can connect to their network. A second meaning, Post Office
Protocol refers to the way e-mail software such as Eudora
gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain a SLIP, PPP,
or shell account you almost always get a POP account with
it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail
software to use to get your mail.
meanings. First and most generally, a place where information
goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial
port on a personal computer is where a modem would
On the Internet port often refers to a number that is
part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right
after the domain name. Every service on an Internet
server listens on a particular port number on that
server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g.
Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also
listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number
must be specified in a URL when accessing the server,
so you might see a URL of the form:
shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the
standard gopher port is 70). Finally, port also refers
to translating a piece of software to bring it from one
type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate
a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh.
single message entered into a network communications system.
E.g. A single message posted to a newsgroup or message
board. See Also: Newsgroup
(Point to Point Protocol) -- Most well known as a protocol
that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line
and a modem to make TCP/IP connections and
thus be really and truly on the Internet.
process whereby the nameservers throughout the world have
updated their records for a specific domain. For example,
if you move your domain from one host to another, it will
take around 24 hours or so for the new address to broadcast
everywhere. During that 24 hour period, the traffic is decreasing
at the old location and increasing at the new location.
Switched Telephone Network) -- The regular old-fashioned
Audio / Real Video
Audio/Real Video enables users of personal computers and
other consumer electronic devices to send and receive audio,
video and other multimedia services using the Web.
enable users of personal computers and other consumer
electronic devices to send and receive audio, video and
other multimedia services using the Web.
every domain is unique, registries have been set up to assign
domains to individuals and organziations. When a domain
is registered with the appropriate registry, that domain
is assigned and becomes no longer available for anyone else
to use. Typically, there are registration and renewal fees
(local registry fees) associated with the right to use a
domain. However, there are some TLDs that are provided at
entity, organization or individual that will be using the
registries don't provide the ability for end users to register
domains with them directly. They might require end users
to purchase the domain through an internet provider that
is acting as the registrar.
organization responsible for assigning domain names for
the TLD that they manage. Furthermore, it is their responsibility
to update the global DNS tables that all nameservers use
to resolve domain names. For example, InterNIC is the registry
for .COM, .NET and .ORG domain names.
TLDs need to be renewed at some scheduled yearly interval.
This is an opportunity for both the registrant and the registry
to update their records as well as collect any applicable
conversion of an internet address or domain name into the
corresponding physical location.
For Comments) -- The name of the result and the process
for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards
are proposed and published on line, as a Request For Comments.
The Internet Engineering Task Force is a consensus-building
body that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard
is established, but the reference number/name for the standard
retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for
e-mail is RFC 822.
special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles
the connection between 2 or more networks. Routers
spend all their time looking at the destination addresses
of the packets passing through them and deciding
which route to send them on.
chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that
is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure
Security Certificates contain information about who it
belongs to, who it was issued by, a unique serial number
or other unique identification, valid dates, and an encrypted
'fingerprint' that can be used to verify the contents
of the certificate.
In order for an SSL connection to be created both sides
must have a valid Security Certificate.
computer, or a software package, that provides a specific
kind of service to client software running on other
computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software,
such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which
the software is running, e.g.Our mail server is down today,
that's why e-mail isn't getting out. A single server machine
could have several different server software packages running
on it, thus providing many different servers to clients
on the network.
produced by Macromedia, allows you to view new forms of
entertainment on the Web, such as games, music, rich-media
chat, interactive product demos, and e-merchandising applications
Line Internet Protocol) -- A standard for using a regular
telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect
a computer as a real Internet site. SLIP is gradually
being replaced by PPP.
Multimegabit Data Service) -- A new standard for very high-speed
Mail Transport Protocol) -- The main protocol used to send
electronic mail on the Internet.
SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a program sending
mail and a program receiving mail should interact.
Almost all Internet email is sent and received by clients
and servers using SMTP, thus if one wanted to set
up an email server on the Internet one would look for
email server software that supports SMTP.
Network Management Protocol) -- A set of standards for communication
with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples
of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches.
A device is said to be 'SNMP compatible' if it can be
monitored and/or controlled using SNMP messages. SNMP
messages are known as 'PDU's' - Protocol Data Units.
Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP 'agent'
software to receive, send, and act upon SNMP messages.
Software for managing devices via SNMP are available for
every kind of commonly used computer and are often bundled
along with the device they are designed to manage. Some
SNMP software is designed to handle a wide variety of
inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET
or other networked communications facility as if it was
a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same
message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it.
The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit
which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The
term may also have come from someone's low opinion of the
food product with the same name, which is generally perceived
as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam is a
registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed
E.g. Mary spammed 50 USENET groups by posting the same
message to each.
Query Language) -- A specialized programming language for
sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and
many smaller database applications can be addressed using
SQL. Each specific application will have its own version
of SQL implementing features unique to that application,
but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of
Sockets Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape Communications
to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across
SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in communications
between web browsers and web servers. URL's
that begin with 'https' indicate that an SSL connection
will be used.
SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication,
and Message Integrity.
In an SSL connection each side of the connection must
have a Security Certificate, which each side's
software sends to the other. Each side then encrypts what
it sends using information from both its own and the other
side's Certificate, ensuring that only the intended recipient
can de-crypt it, and that the other side can be sure the
data came from the place it claims to have come from,
and that the message has not been tampered with.
Operator) -- Anyone responsible for the physical operations
of a computer system or network resource. A System Administrator
decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed
and the System Operator performs those tasks.
leased-line connection capable of carrying data at
1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical
capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less
than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen,
full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000
bits-per-second. T-1 is the fastest speed commonly used
to connect networks to the Internet.
leased-line connection capable of carrying data at
44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to
do full-screen, full-motion video.
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This is the suite
of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally
designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software
is now available for every major kind of computer operating
system. To be truly on the Internet, your computer
must have TCP/IP software.
command and program used to login from one Internet
site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to
the login: prompt of another host.
device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere
else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a
display screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you will
use terminal software in a personal computer - the software
pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows
you to type commands to a computer somewhere else.
special purpose computer that has places to plug in many
modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN
or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal
server does the work of answering the calls and passes the
connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal
servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if
connected to the Internet.
Level Domain: (TLD)
Top Level Domain (TLD) is the uppermost in the hierarchy
of domain names. For example, communitech.net is our domain
name. The "net" is considered the TLD and the
"communitech.net" is considered the second level
domain. Together they form a domain name which is unique.
There are two types of TLDs. The most common type is the
Generic or Global TLDs which include .COM, .NET, .ORG, .MIL,
.INT and .EDU. There is a possibility that new gTLDs will
be introduced in the near future. National or ccTLDs are
two letter country code domains that are managed by a registry
designated and controlled by each specific country. Each
registry might have differing prices, residency requirements
it relates to domain names... a word, phrase or slogan used
to identify and distinguish the source of the goods or services.
Trademark law may be different worldwide. If someone registers
a domain name such as microsoft.to then Microsoft would
need to go to the courts in Tonga to fight to get the name
back. Expensive international litigation is one reason why
it is important to protect your trademarks before someone
else registers the names.
occasion, domains are sold to another organization or sometimes
the name of a company might change. Most registries require
a letter of permission from the old owner to hand over control
to the new owner. The procedures for Transfer of ownership
will depend on the registry.
Ta For Now) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written
in an online forum. See Also: IMHO
computer operating system (the basic software running on
a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets).
UNIX is designed to be used by many people at the same time
(it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is
the most common operating system for servers on the
Resource Locator) -- The standard way to give the address
of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World
Wide Web (WWW). A URL looks like this: http://www.communitech.net/glossary/
or telnet://anywhere.you.want or news:new.newusers.questions
The most common way to use a URL is to enter into a WWW
browser program, such as Netscape, or Lynx.
world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments passed
among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all USENET
machines are on the Internet, maybe half. USENET
is completely decentralized, with over 10,000 discussion
areas, called newsgroups. See Also: Newsgroup
to Unix Encoding) -- A method for converting files from
Binary to ASCII (text) so that they can be
sent across the Internet via e-mail.
Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives)
-- Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica is a
constantly updated database of the names of almost every
menu item on thousands of gopher servers. The Veronica
database can be searched from most major gopher menus.
See Also: Gopher
Microsoft® Visual Basic® programming language, is a fast,
portable, lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide
Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft®
ActiveX® Controls, Automation servers, and Java applets
Area Information Servers) -- A commercial software package
that allows the indexing of huge quantities of information,
and then making those indices searchable across networks
such as the Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS
is that the search results are ranked (scored) according
to how relevant the hits are, and that subsequent searches
can find more stuff like that last batch and thus refine
the search process.
Area Network) -- Any internet or network that
covers an area larger than a single building or campus.
registries maintain a database of domain names and their
associated contact information. Users can query these databases
through a program called Whois.
Wide Web) -- Two meanings - First, loosely used: the whole
constellation of resources that can be accessed using Gopher,
FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools.
Second, the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers)
which are the servers that allow text, graphics, sound files,
etc. to be mixed together.
group of files that reside on the domain host or nameserver.
The zone file designates a domain, its subdomains and mail
trademarks are of their respective holders.
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